1. Before unveiling the cadaver, the presenter will discuss with the students the importance of the cadaver in medical education. Also the body donor program and the basics of the embalming process will be covered. This is an appropriate time to inform the students that the face will remain covered and that the blood has been drained from the cadaver. A discussion will take place on the importance of discretion and respect in regards to the cadaver as it represents an individual who has given the ultimate gift, the gift of themselves, so that others might learn.
2. Difference is Strains and Sprains: A strain is when you "pull" a muscle and a sprain is when you damage a ligament.
The classification of Strains and Sprains is a follows:
First degree: a few fibers of the ligament/ muscle are torn and loss of function is mild
Second degree: roughly half of the fibers of the ligament/ muscle are torn loss of function is moderate to severe
Third degree: all or most of the fibers of the ligament/ muscleare torn and loss of function is severe
Discuss the basic management of strains and sprains using the acronym RICE:
* NSAIDs are commonly included to treat pain and reduce inflammation
3. Knee: Discussion of the basic anatomy of the knee. The presenter will be sure to ask the students to identify as many structures as possible. This is a good opportunity to get the students talking and comfortable enough to ask questions. A model of the knee maybe used to point out the bones, ligaments and tendons.
Structures: bones: femur, tibia, fibula, tibial tubercle, and femoral epicondyles; Muscles: quadriceps-rectus femorus, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralus, sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, illiotibial band, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, soleus, femur, iliac crest, tibia, fibula, calcaneus, femoral artery, vein and nerve, ligaments: ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL
4. Ankle/Foot: Review the anatomy of the ankle with the students; presenter will be sure to ask for their participation. The presenter may use a model to help illustrate the bones of the foot.
Structures: Bones: tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, cuneiform bones, metatarsals, phalanges; Ligaments: deltoid ligament, anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments, calcaneofibular ligament, plantar fascia; muscles: tibialis anterior and posterior, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum longus, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles
5. Shoulder: Discussion of shoulder anatomy. The students will name the major bones and muscles. Given the degree of dissection of the cadavers, the presenter may make use of a plastic model is needed to properly demonstrate the shoulder joint.
Structures: clavicle, acromion process, coracoid process, glenoid fossa, humerus, deltoid, biceps, triceps, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
6. Elbow: Discussion the anatomy of the elbow, elbow dislocation, the Tommy John injury and surgery, lateral epicondylitis ("tennis elbow").
Structures: Bones: humerus, radius, ulna, olecranon process, humeroulnar joint, proximal radioulnar joint; Ligaments: medial collateral ligament (ulnar collateral ligament), lateral collateral ligament radial collateral ligament); Muscles: biceps, brachioradialis, and triceps
After completing this AIMS program, participating students will (be):
1. Acclimated to the use of a cadaver as a learning tool for health-science education
2. Explore the structure of and relationships of the muscles, tendons, bones and ligaments of the knee, ankle, shoulder and elbow
3. Describe the commonly occurring injuries to the above joints
4. Describe principles of movement and physical fitness
5. Understand basic sports injury management
National Science Education (NSE) content standards for grades 9-12:
Systems order and organization
personal and community health
form and function
matter, energy and organization of living systems
evidence, models and explanation
Show Me Standards:
(Science, and Health/Physical Education)
characteristics and interactions of living organisms
properties and principles of matter and energy
structures of, functions of, and relationships among human body systems
principles of movement and physical fitness
diseases and methods for prevention, treatment and control