1. This interactive program will begin by discussing what medicine was like before X-rays were discovered. We’ll consider how a doctor knew if a bone was broken and how they treated their patients.
2. Using historical photographs we will follow the discovery of X-rays by Dr. Roentgen and learn from the method he used to test the mysterious rays to find out more about them before he told anyone. We will see the first X-ray of another person taken by Dr. Roentgen.
3. We will discuss what X-rays are and their properties, comparing them to other wavelengths on the scale of electromagnetic radiation.
4. Using various stories and photographs, we will discuss the strange and funny things the world believed about X-rays. Then talk about how X-rays revolutionized medicine. From there we will discuss the many uses of X-rays in today’s world, such as airport security, medical tests, cancer treatment, archeological studies, to detect art forgery and many more.
5. Questions and answers about the project, research, or writing.
6. End by looking at X-rays of various objects and letting students guess what they are, the images will include chips, alligators, and snakes.
1. To challenge students to think about how scientific discoveries change the world.
2. To engage students in science by mixing in the worlds of history, art, archeology, in a way that makes the discussion fascinating and meaningful to their lives today.
3. To show how research in one topic has connections in many other disciplines of study. In this way students can see how to weave together the worlds of science, history, art and language arts.
Common Core State Standards
Note: The presenter, Carla Killough McClafferty, is also the author of the book, THE HEAD BONE’S CONNECTED TO THE NECK BONE: THE WEIRD, WACKY AND WONDERFUL X-RAY on which this program is based. Although this book is currently out of print, it is still on the shelves of many libraries and used copies are available online.
Teachers can use the video conference and book in the classroom in a wide variety of ways that align with the Common Core State Standards:
In conjunction with this interactive video conference, using the book as a mentor text in the classroom will accomplish the following CCSS Anchor Standards in Reading:
Key Ideas and Details
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.2 Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Craft and Structure
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.4 Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.5 Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.6 Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.7 Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.9 Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
In conjunction with this interactive video conference, the book can be used as a mentor text as your students write arguments, explanatory texts, and narratives based on information found in the book, and by using research found in the bibliography. Using the book in this way will accomplish the following CCSS Anchor Standards in Writing:
Text Types and Purposes
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.
Production and Distribution of Writing
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Range of Writing
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
SPEAKING AND LISTENING
Following this interactive video conference with the author, class discussion about the topic and the speaker’s point of view of the topic will reinforce comprehension. Students can choose a topic about X-rays discussed during the video conference as a topic for a speech which will reinforce research skills, comprehension, collaboration, knowledge and ideas. This will accomplish the following CCSS Anchor Standards in Speaking and Listening:
Comprehension and Collaboration
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1 Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.5 Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
The video conference and book can be used to discuss standard English grammar and usage, domain-specific vocabulary words such as anode, cathode tubes, electromagnetic radiation etc. This could also open the discussion of scientists, discoveries, airport security, and more. These discussions will accomplish the following CCSS Anchor Standards in Language:
Conventions of Standard English
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Knowledge of Language
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.L.6 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
The author will adjust each program to fit the needs of each state’s standards.